Artificial intelligence interview questions and answers

1. What is Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial Intelligence is an area of computer science that emphasizes the creation of intelligent machine that work and reacts like humans.

2. Which domain study Artificial Included?

  • Computer Science
  • Cognitive Science
  • Engineering
  • Ethics
  • Linguistics
  • Logic
  • Mathematics
  • Natural Sciences
  • Philosophy
  • Physiology
  • Psychology
  • Statistics

3. What is the philosophy behind Artificial Intelligence?

As if we see the powers that are exploiting the power of computer system, the curiosity of human lead him to wonder, “Can a machine think and behave like humans do?” Thus, AI was started with the intention of creating similar intelligence in machines. Also, that we find and regard high in humans.

4. Explain Goal of Artificial Intelligence?

To Create Expert Systems it is the type of system in which the system exhibit intelligent behavior, and advice its users. b. To Implement Human Intelligence in Machines It is the way of creating the systems that understand, think, learn, and behave like humans.

5. What Is The Difference Between Strong Ai And Weak Ai?

Strong AI makes the bold claim that computers can be made to think on a level (at least) equal to humans. Weak AI simply states that some “thinking-like” features can be added to computers to make them more useful tools… and this has already started to happen (witness expert systems, drive-by-wire cars and speech recognition software). What does ‘think’ and ‘thinking-like’ mean? That’s a matter of much debate.

6.I Am A Programmer Interested In Ai. I Am Writing A Game That Needs Ai. Where Do I Start?

It depends what the game does. If it’s a two-player board game,look into the “Mini-max” search algorithm for games. In most commercial games, the AI is is a combination of high-level scripts and low-level efficiently-coded, real-time, rule-based systems. Often, commercial games tend to use finite state machines for computer players. Recently, discrete Markov models have been used to simulate unpredictible human players (the buzzword compliant name being “fuzzy” finite state machines).

7. Which is not commonly used programming language for AI?

Perl language is not commonly used programming language for AI

8. What is Prolog in AI?

In AI, Prolog is a programming language based on logic.

9. Give an explanation on the difference between strong AI and weak AI?

Strong AI makes strong claims that computers can be made to think on a level equal to humans while weak AI simply predicts that some features that are resembling to human intelligence can be incorporated to computer to make it more useful tools.

10. Mention the difference between statistical AI and Classical AI ?

Statistical AI is more concerned with “inductive” thought like given a set of pattern, induce the trend etc.  While, classical AI, on the other hand, is more concerned with “ deductive” thought given as a set of constraints, deduce a conclusion

11. Name types of Artificial Intelligence?

a. Strong artificial intelligence

b. Weak artificial intelligence

12. Explain types of Artificial Intelligence?

There are two types of artificial intelligence such as:

a. Strong artificial intelligence

Basically, it deals with the creation of real intelligence artificially. Also, strong AI believes that machines can be made sentient. There are two types of strong AI: Human-like AI In this computer program thinks and reasons to the level of human-being. Non-human-like AI In this computer program develops a non-human way of thinking and reasoning.

b. Weak artificial intelligence

As a result, it doesn’t believe creating human-level intelligence in machines is possible. Although, AI techniques can be developed to solve many real-life problems.

13. Why A.I is needed?

There are some reasons behind its need. So, let us first compare differences between traditional Computer programs vs. Human Intelligence. As it’s identified that normal humans have the same intellectual mechanisms. Moreover, the difference in intelligence is related to “quantitative biochemical and physiological conditions.” Traditionally, we use computing for performing mechanical computations using fixed procedures. Also, there are more complex problems which we need to solve.

14. Where Can I Find Conference Information?

Georg Thimm maintains a webpage that lets you search for upcoming or past conferences in a variety of AI disciplines.

15. What Is A Chatterbot?

chatterbot is a game

16.Where To Find Specific Information On Search Bots?

Check out ALICE and ELIZA bots are very good …and we can get more info on how to build in respective websites

17. Suppose I Have Gmail Account, I Want To Delete All The Mails In My Inbox Having The Same Name(for Eg., Orkut). I Have Thousands Of Mails Like That. So, How Can I Delete All The Mails Having Single Name. Is There Any Option Provided In Gmail?

Yes, its very easy …just do one thing ..in the top of the Inbox page there is a search box just search whatever you want to delete then click .. after few sec all the mail with concerned name get displayed .. just select them and delete them .. as you delete your spam or other mails.

18. Do Bots And Intelligent Agents Have Personalities And Emotions?

IA is used to develop bots… and moreover how u program it is very important.It uses NL and ML also.If a person uses proper ontology then it can answer out.

19. 2 Batsman Are On 94 Notout,need To Win 7 Runs Off 2 Balls,both Hit A Century? How It Is Possible?

First batsman hit 4 on no ball and then took a single on next ball. Thus completed his century. Second batsman hit 6 on last ball and completed his century too.

20. A* algorithm is based on which search method?

A* algorithm is based on best first search method, as it gives an idea of optimization and quick choose of path, and all characteristics lie in A* algorithm.

21. What does a hybrid Bayesian network contain?

A hybrid Bayesian network contains both a discrete and continuous variables.

22. What is agent in artificial intelligence?

Anything perceives its environment by sensors and acts upon an environment by effectors are known as Agent. Agent includes Robots, Programs, and Humans etc.

23. What does Partial order or planning involve?

In partial order planning , rather than searching over possible situation it involves searching over the space of possible plans.  The idea is to construct a plan piece by piece.

24. What are the two different kinds of steps that we can take in constructing a plan?

a) Add an operator (action)

b) Add an ordering constraint between operators

25. Give some disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence?

a. High Cost Its creation requires huge costs as they are very complex machines. Also, repair and maintenance require huge costs.

b. No Replicating Humans As intelligence is believed to be a gift of nature. An ethical argument continues, whether human intelligence is to be replicated or not.

c. Lesser Jobs As we are aware that machines do routine and repeatable tasks much better than humans. Moreover, we use machines instead of humans. As to increase their profitability in businesses.

d. Lack of Personal Connections We can’t rely too much on these machines for educational oversights. That hurt learners more than help.

26. Explain artificial intelligence examples and applications?

a. Virtual Personal Assistants

Basically, it is processed in which we have to collect a huge amount data. That is collected from a variety of sources to learn about users. Also, one needs to be more effective in helping them organize and track their information. For Example There are various platforms like iOS, Android, and Window mobile. We use intelligent digital personal assistants are like Siri, Google Now, and Cortana. AI plays an important role in this apps. If you demand they use to collect the information. And this information is used to recognize your request and serves your result.

b. Smart Cars

There are two examples: That are featured Google’s self-driving car project and Tesla’s “autopilot”. Also. the artificial intelligence is been used since the invention of the first video game.

c. Prediction

We call it as the use of predictive analytics. Its main purpose is potential privacy. Also, we can use in many ways. As its also sending you coupons, offering you discounts. That is close to your home with products that you will like to buy. Further, we can call it as the controversial use of artificial intelligence.

d. Fraud Detection

We use AI to detects fraud. As many frauds always happen in banks. Also, computers have a large sample of fraudulent and non-fraudulent purchases. As they asked to look for signs that a transaction falls into one category or another.

27. What are Educational Requirements for Career in Artificial Intelligence?

  • Various level of math, including probability, statistics, algebra, calculus, logic, and algorithms.
  • Bayesian networking or graphical modeling, including neural nets.
  • Physics, engineering, and robotics.
  • Computer science, programming languages, and coding.
  • Cognitive science theory.

28. How Many Types Of Entities Are There In Knowledge Representation?

There are two types of entities in knowledge representation:

  1. Facts: These are truths that need to be represented

Symbols: It is a form of representation of facts and it is manipulated by the programs to derive new facts.

29.What Are The Properties Of A Good Knowledge Representation System?

A good knowledge representation system must have following properties:

  1. Representation Adequacy: It must be able to represent all knowledge required in a particular domain
  2. Inferential Adequacy: It must be able to derive knowledge representation structures such as symbols when new knowledge is inferred from old knowledge
  3. Inferential Efficiency: It must be able to incorporate additional information into knowledge structures which may help inference process to move in promising direction

Acquisitional Efficiency: It must be able to incorporate new information

30. What Are The Techniques To Represent Knowledge?

There are four techniques to represent knowledge:

  1. Relational knowledge: In this representation, knowledge is represented as a set of relations, similar to relations that are used in the database
  2. Inheritable knowledge: In this representation, knowledge is represented using objects, their attributes and the values of the attributes
  3. Inferential knowledge: In this representation, knowledge is represented in the form of first-order predicate logic

Procedural knowledge: In this representation, knowledge is represented as a set of rules and a rule describes an action to be performed when a condition is met

31. What Is Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial Intelligence is an area of computer science that emphasizes the creation of intelligent machine that work and reacts like humans.

32. What Is An Artificial Intelligence Neural Networks?

Artificial intelligence Neural Networks can model mathematically the way biological brain works, allowing the machine to think and learn the same way the humans do- making them capable of recognizing things like speech, objects and animals like we do.

33. What Are The Various Areas Where Ai (artificial Intelligence) Can Be Used?

Artificial Intelligence can be used in many areas like Computing, Speech recognition, Bio-informatics, Humanoid robot, Computer software, Space and Aeronautics’s etc..

34.Which Is Not Commonly Used Programming Language For Ai?

Perl language is not commonly used programming language for AI

35. Give An Explanation On The Difference Between Strong Ai And Weak Ai?

Strong AI makes strong claims that computers can be made to think on a level equal to humans while weak AI simply predicts that some features that are resembling to human intelligence can be incorporated to computer to make it more useful tools.

36. What Is Alternate, Artificial, Compound And Natural Key?

Alternate Key:  Excluding primary keys all candidate keys are known as Alternate Keys.Artificial Key: If no obvious key either stands alone or compound is available, then the last resort is to, simply create a key, by assigning a number to each record or occurrence.  This is known as artificial key.
Compound Key:  When there is no single data element that uniquely defines the occurrence within a construct, then integrating multiple elements to create a unique identifier for the construct is known as Compound Key.
Natural Key:  Natural key is one of the data element that is stored within a construct, and which is utilized as the primary key.

37. Name search algorithm technology?

a. Problem Space Basically, it is the environment in which the search takes place. (A set of states and set of operators to change those states)

b. Problem Instance It is a result of Initial state + Goal state.

c. Problem Space Graph We use it to represent problem state. Also, we use nodes to show states.

d. The depth of a problem We can define a length of the shortest path.

38. What Brute-Force Search Strategies?

This strategy doesn’t require any domain-specific knowledge. Thus it’s so simple strategy. Hence, it works very smoothly and fine with a small number of possible states.

Requirements for Brute Force Algorithms

a. State description

b. A set of valid operators

c. Initial state

d. Goal state description

39. What is Breadth-First Search Algorithm?

Basically, we have to start searching for the root node. And continue through neighboring nodes first. Further, moves towards next level of nodes. Moreover, till the solution is found, generates one tree at a time. As this search can be implemented using FIFO queue data structure. This method provides the shortest path to the solution. FIFO(First in First Out). If branching factor (average number of child nodes for a given node) = b and depth = d, the number of nodes at level d = bd. The total no of nodes created in worst case is b + b2 + b3 + … + bd.

40.  For online search in ‘Artificial Intelligence’ which search agent operates by interleaving computation and action?

In online search, it will first take action and then observes the environment.

41. Which search algorithm will use a limited amount of memory in online search?

RBFE and SMA* will solve any kind of problem that A* can’t by using a limited amount of memory.

42. In ‘Artificial Intelligence’ where you can use the Bayes rule?

In Artificial Intelligence to answer the probabilistic queries conditioned on one piece of evidence, Bayes rule can be used.

43. For building a Bayes model how many terms are required?

For building a Bayes model in AI, three terms are required; they are one conditional probability and two unconditional probability.

44. While creating Bayesian Network what is the consequence between a node and its predecessors?

While creating Bayesian Network, the consequence between a node and its predecessors is that a node can be conditionally independent of its predecessors.

45. What Is A Heuristic Function?

A heuristic function ranks alternatives, in search algorithms, at each branching step based on the available information to decide which branch to follow.

46. What Is A Top-down Parser?

A top-down parser begins by hypothesizing a sentence and successively predicting lower level constituents until individual pre-terminal symbols are written.

47. Mention The Difference Between Breadth First Search And Best First Search In Artificial Intelligence?

These are the two strategies which are quite similar. In best first search, we expand the nodes in accordance with the evaluation function. While, in breadth first search a node is expanded in accordance to the cost function of the parent node.

48. What Are Frames And Scripts In “artificial Intelligence”?

Frames are a variant of semantic networks which is one of the popular ways of presenting non-procedural knowledge in an expert system. A frame which is an artificial data structure is used to divide knowledge into substructure by representing “stereotyped situations’. Scripts are similar to frames, except the values that fill the slots must be ordered.  Scripts are used in natural language understanding systems to organize a knowledge base in terms of the situation that the system should understand.

49. In speech recognition what kind of signal is used?

In speech recognition, Acoustic signal is used to identify a sequence of words.

50. In speech recognition which model gives the probability of each word following each word?

Biagram model gives the probability of each word following each other word in speech recognition.

 

June 25, 2018

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